Contemporary Models PSV702


Definition of Learning Theories

  • Learning Theories are an arranged set of principles describing on how individuals retain, recall and require knowledge. By knowing and studying various types of learning theories, we are be able to understand deeply on how the learning process happens. Beside that, the principles of the theories can be utilized as a main guidelines to guide educators and students especially in selecting the right sources of strategies, instructional tools, techniques and also to promote learning study in education.

There are 3 (three) types of learning theories:-

♣ Behaviorism ♣

  • Based on the learning approach, behaviorism is coming from the word of behavioral. Behaviorism is the perspective of looking at the attitude that should be discussed not by mental processes, but by observable the experiences.
  • Behaviorist as mentioned that behavior is everything that we do either nonverbal or verbal actions. It can be directly heard or seen.
  • For example, a student is creating a poster, a teacher is explaining something to a student and many more. 
  • For behaviorist, these motives, thoughts and feelings are not suitable subject matter for a science of behavior because they cannot promptly observed.
  • Therefore, there are two behavioral views such as ‘Classical Conditioning’ and ‘Operant Conditioning’ involves in this behaviorism. Actually, both of these views will emphasize the ‘Associative Learning’. This mean two events are associated and connected to each other. For instance, the teacher smiling when the student asks a good question in science subject or an associative learning can happens when the student cleverly associates the nice environment event like learning something in classroom.
  • Other that that, the simple understanding about the behaviorism is it will emphasis on experiences, especially punishment and reinforcement  as determinants of behavior and learning.

♣ Behaviorism Theorists ♣

  • Ivan P. Pavlov         ( From 1849 Until 1936 )
  • Edward Thorndike ( From 1874 Until 1949 )
  • John B. Watson       ( From 1878 Until 1958 )
  • B. F Skinner             ( From 1904 Until 1990 )
  • Edwin R. Guthrie    ( From 1886 Until 1959 )
  • Clark L. Hull             ( From 1884 Until 1952 )
  • Edward C. Tolman  ( From 1886 Until 1959 )

♣ Behaviorism Models ♣

There are 10 (ten) of behaviorism models such as follows:-

♣ Cognitivism ♣

  • Based on the learning approach, Cognitivism is coming from the word of cognition defines as “thought” and psychology became more focusing and more cognitive towards thought  especially in the 21st century of learning.
  • Social Cognitive, Behavioral, Information Processing, Social Constructivist and Cognitive Constructivist all are contribute to the children learning and understanding.
  • Students are more interest to learn the cognition in optimal methods and wonderful learning environment.
  • Peaceful learning environments should be prepared to specific learning goals, prior knowledge, the students’ backgrounds and also the input of learning that will be occurred.
  • Hence, as a teacher, he or she needs to the understand deeper about the basic principles of learning and must know how to utilize them specifically when meet the diverse learning goals in the contexts whereby students’ need something new and different.
  • Moreover, in the cognitive constructivist, a child’s more emphasis towards cognitive construction of understanding and knowledge.

♣ Cognitivism Theorists ♣

  • Jean Piaget                          ( From 1896 Until 1980 )
  • Marriner David Merill     ( From 1973 Until Now )
  • Robert Milss Gagne          ( From 1915 Until 2002 )
  • Jerome Seymour Bruner ( From 1915 Until 2016  )
  • Roger Schank                     ( From 1946 Until Now )

♣ Cognitivism Models ♣

  • ACT-R Model
  • Computational Model
  • Soar Model
  • ARCS Model
  • Concept Attainment Model
  • Algo-Heuristic
  • Gagne’s 9 Events of Instruction
  • ASSURE Model

♣ Constructivism ♣

  • Constructivism is a model or worldview posits where learning become an active constructive development. The learner itself is an a good information constructor as well.
  • In life, people who actively create or construct their own subjective representations of objective reality can be consider as constructivist person.
  • The mental representation of a person very subjective because new data or information is linked to the prior education.
  • In constructivism process, instructors should avoid tell students anything directly about the project or task that has been given to them. As an instructors, they should allow students to construct learning by themselves independently.
  • For example, listening to a lecture talk also involves an active attempts to construct new information.

  ♣ Constructivism Theorists ♣

  • Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky ( From 1896 Until 1943 )
  • Jean Piaget                                 ( From 1986 Until 1980 )
  • Jerome Seymour Bruner        ( From 1915 Until 2016 )
  • John Dewey                                ( From 1859 Until 2016 )

  ♣ Constructivism Model ♣

  • Le Monde De Darwin
  • Mental Model
  • Community of Inquiry Model
  • Project-Based Science Model (PBS)
  • Discovery Learning
  •  Web Quest Model
  • Computer Simulation Model
  • Case-Based Learning (CBL)
  • Knowledge Building Community Model
  • 4c-ID Model
  • Scaffold Knowledge Integration  Model
  • Inductive Model
  • Hannafin-Peck Model
  • ADDIE Model
  • ISD Model
  • Dick and Carey Model
  • Spiral Model
  • Kemp Design Model
  • Knirk and Gustafson Design Model




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