Establishing a theoretical framework in a dissertation writing guide the strong reason why the researcher needs to utilize this effectively in this study (Simon, M.K. and Goes, 2011). For the purpose of this research, a successful of theoretical framework is built based on the three models of learning and one theory of supporting the research study. Firstly, the first model is adapted and proposed by David A. Kolb (1984) where he experts on experiential learning. Secondly, the model adapted from James A. Banks (1993) whereby he discussed mainly on multicultural education. Thirdly, the other model used is proposed by Giving-Making-Prompting by Thomas C. Hammond and Meghan McGlinn Manfra (2009). Other than that, in this research the researcher also applied the theory of moral development and moral education by Lawrence Kohlberg (1976, 1986).
The flow process of the theoretical framework started from left to the right. The first theoretical framework of this research is created based on the model of David A.Kolb (1984) where he used four (4) components in his research; abstract conceptualization, active experimentation, concrete experience and reflective observation. In this study, researcher has chosen to implement this model in order to fulfill all of the learning objectives of the study as the Kolb’s Model acts as the main essential components in the theoretical framework. For the second model, researcher utilized of James A. Banks (2008). In Bank’s model, he has developed the model of multicultural education which emphasized the four levels of integration. The four levels consist of different approaches such as the contribution approach, the additive approach, the transformation approach and the social action approach. The researcher focused to the level four of which is the social action approach.
This social action approach is related with some components that need of students decisions, actions and understanding in solving the problems (Banks, n.d.). Besides that, Banks’s model also educate students especially in social change and social criticism with aim to teach them about how to make a decision making skills in life (Erlbaum, Taylor, Group, Banks, & Banks, 2010). Therefore, by implementing this Bank’s theory perhaps this will help researcher, teacher and also a group of students in creating the 3D mural paintings by using an experiential learning activity.
The third process of this theoretical, the researcher utilized other model structure to support this learning activity by adapting Hammond and Manfra (2009) model structured. There were three components in the structured model, for example Giving-Prompting-Making. The contents of Hammond and Manfra (2009) like the content knowledge and pedagogical knowledge. This model is basically used for the Integration of Technology, however referring to Siti Zuraida Maaruf (2016) she explained that this model is appropriate to be implemented within the scope of visual art education by focusing on the Giving-Prompting-Making model technique as referring to the researcher objective is to identify the enthusiasm of teacher and secondary school students in creating 3D Mural Paintings for Visual Arts Education.
The fourth and last process in the theoretical framework, the researcher employed the theory of Lawrence Kohlberg (1976, 1986). Kohlberg’s theory discussed about the moral development and moral education primarily involved of moral reasoning occurs in stages and without age’s group. A key concept of Kohlberg’s theory was to understand the real progression through stages and levels either the morality becomes more mature or internal. The researcher used this Kohlberg’s theory due to focused with the objectives to study the impacts processes of 3D Mural Paintings by using experiential learning for teacher and secondary school students as the development of producing the artwork involved of learning activity.
Thus, all the social action approach, the giving technique, prompting and making all of the components are carry out together with Kohlberg’s theory of moral development and moral education towards by using the experiential learning activity. For instance, the technique of giving can be applied by teacher to give instructions and demonstrations on how making the 3D mural painting can be found during the energetic experimentation study between teacher and secondary school students. Below are all the the “Theoretical Framework” progress produced by me.
Theoretical Framework – 2nd Amendment (The Latest – New)
Theoretical Framework – 1st Amendment
Theoretical Framework – Progress