Reflective: 26 April 2017
Isman Instructional Design Model
Today is the last day of individual presentation task. So my friend’s Kamil will present about “Isman Instructional Design Model”. Basically, Isman Model major aim is referring to five (5) components; plan, develop, implement, evaluate and organize the students learning activity effectively especially in their performance. The main theoretical foundation in this model comes from the behaviorism, cognitivism and constructivism. The three components act as the design instruction in Isman Model. In this model, there are five (5) systematic steps to follow each processes. The steps are input, process, output, feedback and learning. This model can be implement for teachers to develop effective instruction for their students learning and at the same time will motivate students to join the activity in classroom. To find out more about this Isman Model, you can go to Kamil’s WordPress as he already mentioned in details every components with some of the examples.
Reflective: 19 April 2017
Rapid Prototyping Model + Dick & Carey Model
Today, they are two presenters will explain about their topic which is Wani and I (myself). Wani will cover the topic of “Rapid Prototyping Instructional Design Model” while I will cover the topic “Dick & Carey Instructional Design Model”. So, for my presentation’s topic, I will put my power point slide directly to my “WordPress” page and the file name is “Individual Presentation Model PSV702”. Therefore, from there everyone can search and learn more about what is actually “Dick & Carey Instructional Design Model” talk about to. Okay now we move forward discuss about Wani’s topic which is “Rapid Prototyping Instructional Design Model”. Rapid Prototyping is one of the examples in Instructional Design Model. As we know Instructional Design is a conceptual and procedural model which basically based on practices and theory that provide a structure and the meaning to solve a problem. If we study about “Rapid Prototyping” we will noticed that this model has been applied during 1960’s until 1980’s especially for model parts and prototypes of engineering production. Besides that, the model also can be used for testing other various design concept, functionality, ideas, design features, performance, output and so on. According to Tripp & BichelMeyer (1990), there are three steps that involved in this model study such as the research and design, the construction and the utilization. If we want to know more about this topic, we can go to Wani’s WordPress page where she explained about the example of rapid prototyping for jewelry making, learning environment assumptions, disadvantages, advantages and the differences of “Rapid Prototyping” with Dick & Carey Model, Addie Model and Assure Model.
Efland Cognitive Development Model + Taba Model of Curriculum Development + CTOC Model (Componential Amabile Technology Model)
The presentation started at 6.00pm. The first lucky person who presented today was Nazia, where she covered the “Efland Cognitive Development Model”, then followed by Dini which is discussed on ” Taba Model of Curriculum Development”. For CTOC Model, the topic should be covered by Fadhli, however today he didn’t attend for his presentation. Therefore, Dr Syam’s said that CTOC Model under Firdaus’s topic can be presented next week. So, he will the first person next week, InsyaAllah.
Actually, Arthur D.Efland had published one book entitled “Art and Cognition”-Integrating The Visual Arts In The Curriculum (2002). In his book, there were seven chapters explaining mainly about the arts and cognition. In last chapter, chapter 7, Efland’s reviewed three key observations. The first thing he said that the mind is a computational function using symbols. The second thing, Efland’s said cognition is a constructive process applied for individuals for secure meaning. The third and last thing, learning usually includes of the acquisition of social reality, learning and idea becomes so meaningful when it involves of situational context and sociocultural. Hence, an integrated view of cognition as one of the three factors that accommodates it. Every components that Nazia’s explained very essential to the visual arts curriculum nowadays. For Nazia’s topic, mostly she mentioned about the “The Arts and Cognition: A Cognitive Argument for the Arts” whereby tells only four components such as:
a) Cognitive Flexibility / General Cognitive Development
b) Integration of Knowledge Through the Arts
c) The Imaginative in Cognition
d) The Aesthetic Experience
Book: Efland, A. D. (2002). Art And Cognition Integrating The Visual Arts In The Curriculum. United States of America: Teachers College Press Amsterdam Avenue, New York, NY.
After Nazia’s finished her presentation, the discussion then was continued by Dini where she presented on the “Taba Model of Curriculum Development”. Based on her titled, what I understood was Taba Model was a teacher approach. Other than that, according to Taba (1902-1967), she believed that teachers were the one that students need. Therefore, the teachers were the main person who could develop the curriculum in schools. Moreover in Taba Model there are 7 (seven) steps that the teachers must follow to fulfill the requirement such as:
a) Diagnosis of learners need and expectation of the larger society
b) Formulation of learning objectives
c) Selection of the learning content
d) Organization of learning content
e) Selection of learning experiences
f) Organization of learning activities
g) Determination of what to evaluate the means of doing it
The best thing about this Taba Models is that the Model can taps or trigger questions and answers into “Higher Order Thinking Skills” or known as “HOTS”. Besides that the Curriculum Development Model can collaboratively artworks with students and teachers. However in this Taba Model the other issue that appeared especially on limitation is that this Model quiet difficult to be adapted for all subjects in schools.
Then the next presentation continued with Firdaus where he covered on “CTOC Model” or (Componential Amabile Technology Model). This model was invented and formulated by Teresa Amabila in 1983 which used to make people understand what is creativity, who involved in the creativity process and so on. So, as mentioned by Firdaus, creativity is the production of a novel and the appropriate feedback to an open-ended question. Not only that, this Amabile’s theory also will describe what are the creative process involved, the outcomes and the influences. Moreover, to be a creative person you need three (3) components such as:
a) The Expertise: Intellectual, Knowledge, Procedural and Technical
b) Motivation: Intrinsic is more effective than extrinsic
c) Creative-Thinking Skills: To see the imaginatively and flexibly people approach the problems
Besides that, not to be mistaken the four (4) components of creativity like the domain-relevant skills, creativity-relevant processes, task motivation and social environment may be used for every of creativity processes. Therefore, to answer the question from the beginning on how to produce the creative work is that this “CTOC Model” will helped you out more to find the creative solutions especially in your problems/ area/ activity.
Reflective: 5 April 2017
Visual Culture + Tyler Curriculum Model + Gagne 9 Events of Instructional Design
Today is the presentation week of three of my friends. They presented their own topic in the same day. The first presenter was Najihah discussed about “Visual Culture Model” The second presenter was Radin, talked about “Curriculum Models of Tyles” and the last presenter was Wan Ealina discussed about the “Gagne 9 Events of Instructional Design Model”. In my understanding about Najihah’s topic, Visual Culture actually has a very wide meaning. As what mentioned by Najihah’s the aspect of culture itself that expressed the visual images. Yes, I agreed that many of academicians studied about visual culture to relate with other subjects such as; art history, philosophy, anthropology, critical theory, cultural studies and many more. Based on Najihah’s infographic, they were seven vital persons that strongly contributed to the visual culture in terms of art education scope. Each of them was link to each other, the differences are the way they perceived and delivered visual culture based on what they studied. Based on my reading through this book “Visual Methodologies” by Gillian Rose, visual culture, visual disruption and visual pleasure are among the topics under the psychoanalysis. Psychoanalysis consists of a range of theories that mostly related with human subjectivity, the unconscious and sexuality. Sigmund Freud (1859-1939), most of the writers and psychoanalyst have taken his ideas about psychoanalysis and diverse to the body of work. Therefore, psychoanalysis represents the visual image. Freud suggested the “Scopophilia” which is meaning of pleasure of looking had attracted this psychoanalyst, Jacques Lacan’s to his work. For Lacan, he argued about Sigmund Freud theory the way certain moments of seeing, and particular visualities are central to how sexualities and subjectivities are formed. Due to that, Lacan’s work has become so prominent for visual culture. Lacan’s come out with his ideas, the theorization of gaze where the real, the imaginary and the symbolic relate to the mirror concept. Since then, other theorists like John Berger and Laura Mulvey revealed the theory of male and gaze. Then, follow by WJT Mitcheel the iconology of image, text and ideology of human being. Morever, other theorists like Nicholasa Mirzoeff, Paul Duncum and Olivia Gude also came out discussed about visual culture. I will conclude the visual culture topic by giving these:-
a) Associated with: Psychoanalysis has most often been used as an approach to interpreting film, but some critics of the mass media have also used some its concepts.
b) Sites and Modalities: Psychoanalysis is most concerned with the sites of the image and its audiencing. Mainly concerned with how aspects of the compositional modality of an image offer particular spectating positions to viewers.
c) Key Terms: The key terms for this topic include sexuality, subjectivity, desire, fantasy, visual pleasure, the real, the symbolic, the visual culture and the object petit.
d) Weaknesses and Strengths: Same like semiology, psychoanalysis offers a rich and nuanced vocabulary for interpreting the visualization of sexualised differences and for speculating about the complicity of audiences with those visualizations. Even though, kinds of difference other than sexual differences are neglected and psychoanalysis cannot address the social practices of the display and audience of visual images.
Raden’s started his presentation of “Tyler Curriculum Model” by introducing what is the definition of Tyler in curriculum design. Tyler’s Curriculum Model is like teacher-centred learning. He creatively managed to create a video from Powtoon explaining about the topic. Based on what he explained about Tyler, he actually describes very details about the model. For example, he explained the meaning of CURRI-CU-LUM separately which I never knew before. The CURRI-CU-LUM is defined as CURRI for Currying, CU is defined as Cultural and LUM is defined as Umpires. In Tyler Curriculum Model, there are three things that we have to remember; students, society and subject matter. Besides that, every discussion made by Raden’s very precise and clear, he also gave few examples to the audiences such as playing two short movies from “The Childhood Ends” and “Dead Poets Society” which are related to the Tyler’s topic. Raden’s also mentioned about the model flows stage by stage, the advantages and disadvantages about the model. Not only explaining about Tyler’s model, he did mention little about Taba’s Curriculum Model and The Saylor and Alexander Model. Actually, what he did was to see whether the audiences can differentiate the inputs of every model or not. Then, he gave us one question about the Malaysian Education sytem is using what model? Therefore, by learning about Tyler Curriculum Model, I know already and this information can be useful later in my research project or study.
Wan Ealina’s discussed about her topic which is Robert Gagne’s (Gagne’s Nine Events of Instruction). She introduced the biography of the psychologist and what is meaning of Gagne’s 9 Events Instuction model. Based on my understanding, the model is a systematic approach whereby Gagne’s already known as a behaviourist person, he focused on the outcomes of attitudes, behaviours in research or training. Actually, what I noticed about the nine stages, the most difficult part is the last stage of instruction. I agreed as what Dr.Syam said, the last part is the hardest part. Enhance retention and manner, how to say, is like we have to inform the learners about similar problem situations and then at the same time we have to provide some additional practice. Other than that, we have to put the learners in a learning transfer situation and after that review the lesson together. For me to summarize the other eight stages are very long. Therefore, I attach a video of Gagne’s 9 Events Instruction for everyone to see and understand what all is about.
Bate Teaching Model
The creator of this model was Tony Bates. He was the President and CEO of Tony Bates Associates Ltd and has a private company specializing on training and consultancy of e-learning management, planning and distance education. He published about twelve books in his entire life; the latest, free and open online textbook known as “Teaching in a Digital Age” has been downloaded globally through the world since April 2015 (32,000 times). Basically in his “Teaching in a Digital Age” book discussed about the fundamental change in education, the nature of knowledge impact to teaching, teaching methods focusing on campus life, teaching methods of online focus, MOOC’s, understanding technology in education, using media as a tool for pedagogical things, teaching steps in digital age and supporting instructors and teachers in a digital age.
Reflective: 29 March 2017
Today, Dr.Syam explained about the topic of “Designing Smart Research Objectives”. This topic is very essential to discuss as it will help researcher or learner especially me, myself on how to write the correct research objective/s in proposal/research study. Based on my understanding about the topic, there are six types of common questions in formulating the research questions such as:-
-Is it linked to the theory? – The research objective/s that we used in our research, either it can be used or not in the theory, is it suitable to be implementing in the research/study?
-Provide fresh insight – Meaning that this is the new/in trend research objective/s.
-Is the topic clearly stated? – Meaning that the title of the topic can be change anytime / the topic is catchy one.
-Is doable in the available time – Related to the time constraint or time-frame on how me can managed the research/study.
-Is realistic in terms of knowledge and skills? – Meaning that the research/study is optimistic, pragmatic or even have the accessibility to do.
-Do you have an access to data? – The information or data easier to get or not?
Furthermore, to create the research objective/s, the researcher need to know that it must come with the headed of infinitive verbs such as, to determine, to identify, to study and many more. In classroom, Dr. Syam had given one activity related to the topic which is to create our own research objectives, research questions, theoretical framework progress and any other things related to our research project. As mentioned by Dr.Syam, this activity will guide us to complete our tasked within the time frame as long as we follow the SMART objectives procedure.
Simple Note To Remember:
S > SPECIFIC
M > MEASURABLE
A > ACHIEVABLE
R > RELEVANT
T > TIMELY
Reflective: 15 March 2017
Today was my cheerful day to attend to Dr Syam’s class. I am very excited to come to his class PSV702 (Contemporary Models in Visual Art Education). Unfortunately I could not make it due to my small injury (left ankle) pain. I was fallen down on 14 March 2017 in front of Affin Bank Menara SAAS UiTM Shah Alam. It was very sad moment to remember actually, to cure the pain could takes about two or three weeks, very difficult and quite challenging for me to walk in the normal way compare to other people. Therefore, what I did was just asking my friends Dini, Jiha and Raden about the assignments that had been given and what should I do later in the next class. They explained that there were so many important things discussion during the class. Even they also could not remember the details because a lot actually. I wasn’t the lucky person not be able to attend Dr.Syam’s class. What to do,have to accept it. Based on what Raden, Dini and Jiha did for the assignment through WordPress, I just reflected what they have written.
Basically, the discussion was about “The Backwards Brain Bicyle” by Mr. Destin Sandlin. He did an experiment to test people whether they can ride the backwards bicycle or not. Mr. Destin shared his experience at first riding the bicycle. “As you can see that I am laughing but I am actually really frustrated”. From the statement of Mr.Destin showed that he really upset about the bike because it revealed the deep truth about him as a human being. He noticed one thing from the experiment which was “Knowledge is Not Understanding”. Mr. Destin took about 8 months to be expert in riding the backwards bicycle by doing and practicing. Comparing to his son, successfully took around two weeks to ride the backwards bicycle. How tremendous his son could did it. This experiment proved that a child actually had more positive and more neutral plasticity than an adult like Mr.Destin. That’s why the best and suitable time to teach children to learn language and to speak when they were a young child. Other than that, after watching the video about “The Backwards Brain Bicycle” there were three words that always in my mind; LEARNED RE-LEARN UN-LEARN. In conclusion, let me shared three things that you will learned from the experiment:
1-Learned that welders are often smarter than engineers; which I totally agreed about it! In life, we cannot easily judge people only by its cover. Actually, we have to know that, every human being is different with their knowledge, skills, experience and many more.
2-Learned that knowledge does not equal understanding; yes absolutely right after watch the video about “The Backwards Brain Bicycle” by Mr.Destin. Knowledge is not about understanding.
3-Learned that truth is truth, no matter what you think about it, you must be careful about how you want to justify / interpret / judge something because we are the one who looking at the world with a bias even you are not think about it. Thus, by watching this video, I have learned a lot; one of the theory was behaviorism. Thanks a lot to Mr. Destin Sandlin and to Dr.Syam, thanks again because introducing me and my friends a great video.